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Avicenna - Ibn Sina (980)
One of us (i.e. a human being) should be imagined as having been created in a single stroke; created perfect and complete but with his vision obscured so that he cannot perceive external entities; created falling through air or a void, in such a manner that he is not struck by the firmness of the air in any way that compels him to feel it, and with his limbs separated so that they do not come in contact with or touch each other. Then contemplate the following: can he be assured of the existence of himself? He does not have any doubt in that his self exists, without thereby asserting that he has any exterior limbs, nor any internal organs, neither heart nor brain, nor any one of the exterior things at all; but rather he can affirm the existence of himself, without thereby asserting there that this self has any extension in space. Even if it were possible for him in that state to imagine a hand or any other limb, he would not imagine it as being a part of his self, nor as a condition for the existence of that self; for as you know that which is asserted is different from that which is not asserted, and that which is inferred is different from that which is not inferred. Therefore the self, the existence of which has been asserted, is a unique characteristic, in as much that it is not as such the same as the body or the limbs, which have not been ascertained. Thus that which is ascertained (i.e. the self), does have a way of being sure of the existence of the soul as something other than the body, even something non-bodily; this he knows, this he should understand intuitively, if it is that he is ignorant off it and needs to be beaten with a stick [to realize it].

Niekto (2019)
The damage or error theory include 1) Wear and tear theory. Cells and tissues have vital parts that wear out resulting in aging. Like components of an aging car, parts of the body eventually wear out from repeated use, killing them and then the body. So the wear and tear theory of aging was first introduced by Dr. August Weismann, a German biologist, in 1882, it sounds perfectly reasonable to many people even today, because this is what happens to most familiar things around them. 2) Rate of living theory. The greater an organism’s rate of oxygen basal metabolism, the shorter its life span (5). The rate-of-living theory of aging while helpful is not completely adequate in explaining the maximum life span (6).Dr. Rollo proposes a modified version of Pearl’s rate of living theory emphasizing the hard-wired antagonism of growth (TOR) and stress resistance (FOXO) (7). 3) Cross-linking theory. The cross-linking theory of aging was proposed by Johan Bjorksten in 1942 (8). According to this theory, an accumulation of cross-linked proteins damages cells and tissues, slowing down bodily processes resulting in aging. Recent studies show that cross-linking reactions are involved in the age related changes in the studied proteins (9). 4) Free radicals theory. This theory, which was first introduced by Dr. Gerschman in 1954, but was developed by Dr. Denham Harman (10, 11), proposes that superoxide and other free radicals cause damage to the macromolecular components of the cell, giving rise to accumulated damage causing cells, and eventually organs, to stop functioning. 5) Somatic DNA damage theory. DNA damages occur continuously in cells of living organisms. While most of these damages are repaired, some accumulate, as the DNA Polymerases and other repair mechanisms cannot correct defects as fast as they are apparently produced. In particular, there is evidence for DNA damage accumulation in non-dividing cells of mammals. Genetic mutations occur and accumulate with increasing age, causing cells to deteriorate and malfunction. In particular, damage to mitochondrial DNA might lead to mitochondrial dysfunction. Therefore, aging results from damage to the genetic integrity of the body’s cells.

Niekto (2019)
There are three basic types of questions that research projects can address: Descriptive.When a study is designed primarily to describe what is going on or what exists. Public opinion polls that seek only to describe the proportion of people who hold various opinions are primarily descriptive in nature. For instance, if we want to know what percent of the population would vote for a Democratic or a Republican in the next presidential election, we are simply interested in describing something...... Relational.When a study is designed to look at the relationships between two or more variables. A public opinion poll that compares what proportion of males and females say they would vote for a Democratic or a Republican candidate in the next presidential election is essentially studying the relationship between gender and voting preference..... Causal.When a study is designed to determine whether one or more variables (e.g., a program or treatment variable) causes or affects e or more outcome variables. If we did a public opinion poll to try to determine whether a recent political advertising campaign changed voter preferences, we would essentially be studying whether the campaign (cause) changed the proportion of voters who would vote Democratic or Republican (effect).The three question types can be viewed as cumulative. That is, a relational study assumes that you can first describe (by measuring or observing) each of the variables you are trying to relate. And, a causal study assumes that you can describe both the cause and effect variables and that you can show that they are related to each other. Causal studies are probably the most demanding of the three. .

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