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The programmed theory has three sub-categories: 1) Programmed Longevity. Aging is the result of a sequential switching on and off of certain genes, with senescence being defined as the time when age-associated deficits are manifested. Dr. Davidovic et al discuss the role of genetic instability in aging and dynamics of the aging process (1). 2) Endocrine Theory. Biological clocks act through hormones to control the pace of aging. Recent studies confirm that aging is hormonally regulated and that the evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway plays a key role in the hormonal regulation of aging. Dr. van Heemst discusses the potential mechanism underlying IIS and aging process(2). 3) Immunological Theory. The immune system is programmed to decline over time, which leads to an increased vulnerability to infectious disease and thus aging and death. It is well documented that the effectiveness of the immune system peaks at puberty and gradually declines thereafter with advance in age.

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